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iS8 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION
Records of Aberdeen. In 1418 we find the provost and com-
munity of the burgh presenting a candidate for the mastership of
the grammar school to be examined by the chancellor of the
church. But in 1509, "the provost, bailies, council and com-
munity n appointed a headmaster in overt defiance of the chan-
cellor, and succeeded in maintaining the appointment in spite of
an appeal to Rome. In 1538, when there was again a vacancy in
the headmaster ship, the town council submitted their nominee to
the chancellor, and though the chancellor had a man of his own
for the post, they got their own candidate appointed. The position
of towns like Peebles and Aberdeen was undoubtedly exceptional,
but not without its significance as marking the beginnings of a
wider movement for the transfer of education from the Church to
the secular authorities.
ABELARD : G. Cornpayre, Abelard and the Origin and Early History of
Universities, London, 1893 ; J. McCabe, Peter Abelard, London. 1901.
See also General Bibliography, III.